Open Access Review

Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

by Sherouk M Okda 1,* Amira B Kassem 1 Ahmad Salahuddin 2,3  and  Noha A El-Bassiouny 1
Department of clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice, faculty of pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt
Department of Biochemistry, faculty of pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt
Department of Biochemistry, college of pharmacy, Al Ayen University, Nasiryah, Iraq
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
IJCMR  2023, 16; 2(1), 16;
Received: 17 October 2023 / Accepted: 23 November 2023 / Published Online: 24 November 2023


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Major and well-established cardiovascular disease risk factors include advancing age, male sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, elevated total serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Genetic polymorphism represents an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is not explored and researched thoroughly. In this review article, a total of 31 scientific articles studying the association between different genetic polymorphisms and the risk of cardiovascular disease were studied. Different genetic polymorphisms were found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease incidence, and genotyping of these different genetic polymorphisms should be considered as routine screening for cardiovascular disease.

Copyright: © 2023 by Okda, Kassem, Salahuddin and El-Bassiouny. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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ACS Style
Okda, S. M.; Kassem, A. B.; Salahuddin, A.; El-Bassiouny, N. A. Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. International Journal of Clinical Medical Research, 2024, 2, 16.
AMA Style
Okda S M, Kassem A B, Salahuddin A, El-Bassiouny N A. Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. International Journal of Clinical Medical Research; 2024, 2(1):16.
Chicago/Turabian Style
Okda, Sherouk M.; Kassem, Amira B.; Salahuddin, Ahmad; El-Bassiouny, Noha A. 2024. "Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease" International Journal of Clinical Medical Research 2, no.1:16.

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