ISSN: n/a, E-ISSN: 3005-480X
An international, open-access, peer-reviewed publication with a focus on general medical research and clinical practise is the publication of our journal. This magazine intends to publish articles on clinical medical sciences and clinical practise, preventive medicine, epidemiology, healthcare research, and translational medicine that are written academically and based on evidence. Given that the articles' contents are relevant to clinical applications, articles covering cellular, molecular, and animal investigations are also taken into consideration. Each article undergoes thorough peer evaluation. Clinical medicine research and practice-relevant novel findings should be presented in manuscripts as original articles, editorials, reviews (including systematic reviews and meta-analyses), short communications, case reports, letters to the editor, meeting summaries, book reviews, and video data.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Major and well-established cardiovascular disease risk factors include advancing age, male sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, elevated total serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Genetic polymorphism represents an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is not explored and researched thoroughly. In this review article, a total of 31 scientific articles studying the association between different genetic polymorphisms and the risk of cardiovascular disease were studied. Different genetic polymorphisms were found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease incidence, and genotyping of these different genetic polymorphisms should be considered as routine screening for cardiovascular disease.
The world is facing a terrible challenge to overcome the COVID-19 global outbreak. The spread of COVID-19 pandemic disease has put global health, life and work style, social and economic growth at high risk. The current study was aimed at extracting COVID-19 related information, attitudes and behaviors commitment level from the general population and healthcare workers in the central region of Egypt.
A cross-sectional online survey of 1312 Egyptian residents was conducted between 11th May and 15th June 2020. A questionnaire containing 28 knowledge and 56 attitude items was completed by all the participants. Stratified random sampling was applied to select the study participants. In this analysis, data was collected using a questionnaire that was developed and validated. The questionnaire included demographic variables and items relating to COVID-19 awareness, attitudes and practices. Descriptive and inferential experiments were carried out.
In total, 1312 participants completed the questionnaire; 80.2% of the participants have good knowledge about different modes of transmission of COVID-19, 5.6% obtain their knowledge from WHO website and 60.5% from multiple sources. The results showed positive attitude from the participants towards COVID-19 protective measures as 81.0% wearing masks, 85.2% washing their hands, 76.6% using alcohol and hand gel hygiene, and 64.5% using surface disinfectants.
The findings highlight the value of clear communications from health authorities and the government, as well as the need for targeted health education programs to promote awareness, behaviors and practice levels.
As a result of the availability of high-speed computing devices, disease screening procedures in modern hospitals have significantly improved over the last few decades. As a result of this invention of deep learning procedures (DP), this work implemented modern diagnostic schemes to achieve accurate and fast results when screening patients for diseases with the aid of medical data.
This study applied pre-trained DP to detect Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU) from the test images. This work consists following stages; (i) Resizing, augmenting, and enhancing images, (ii) deep-features mining with a chosen DP, (iii) features reduction using 50% dropout and serial features-fusion, and (iv) Binary-classification through five-fold cross-validation. Two types of disease detection procedures implemented during the investigation: (a) Conventional deep-features and (b) fused deep-features (FD).
As a result of this study, the FD obtained with VGG16 and ResNet101 enabled 99.5% accuracy in DFU detection using SoftMax classifier.
This demonstration confirmed that the proposed scheme is effective in detecting DFU from the chosen database.
The objective of this research endeavor was to assess the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG) and ursolic acid (UA) on hepatic insulin signaling indicators and inflammatory marker concentrations in C57/BL/6J mice that were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD).
C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered UA (5 mg/kg BW), RSG (4 mg/kg BW), and UA (5 mg/kg BW) + RSG (4 mg/kg BW) for the last 6 weeks.
The HFD groups showed a significant increase in leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6, whereas adiponection level significantly decreased. The expression of insulin signaling markers in the liver also significantly increased in HFD mice.
Combination treatment improves above said parameters than individual parameters. These data suggest that combination treatment (UA with RSG) has potential benefits for the treatment of HFD-induced insulin resistance, and its effects may be associated with improvements in the inhibition of the expression of inflammatory markers in plasma and liver.
We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of gastrectomy versus endoscopic submucosal dissection for early stomach cancer.
A-systematic-literature-search-up-to-July-2022-was-performed-and-2456-related-studies-were-evaluated.-The-chosen-studies-comprised-15461-early-stomach-cancer-subjects-who-participated-in-the-selected-studies'-baseline-trials;-6503-of-them-used-the-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection, while 8958 used gastrectomy. Odds ratio (OR), and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the effect of the gastrectomy versus endoscopic submucosal dissection for early stomach cancer by the dichotomous, and contentious methods with a random or fixed effect model.
The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection resulted in significantly lower 5-year overall survivals (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77, p<0.001), lower the 5-year overall survival in propensity score-matched patients (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.41-0.59, p<0.001), higher recurrences (OR, 6.99; 95% CI, 5,03-9.70, p<0.001), and higher synchronous lesion (OR, 7.24; 95% CI, 2.78-18.83, p<0.001), and higher metachronous lesion (OR,10.05; 95% CI, 6.44-15.67, p<0.001) compared to the gastrectomy for early stomach cancer.
However, no significant difference was found between submucosal dissection and gastrectomy for early stomach cancer in recurrence-free survival (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.00, p=0.05), disease-free survival (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.16-1.16, p=0.10), and disease-specific survival (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.38-2.89, p=0.92).
The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection resulted in significantly lower 5-year overall survival, lower 5-year overall survival in propensity score-matched patients, higher recurrences, higher-synchronous lesion, and higher metachronous lesion, however, no significant difference was found in recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and disease-specific survival compared to the gastrectomy for early stomach cancer. The small number of studies in several comparisons calls for care when analyzing the results.
A meta-analysis investigation was executed to measure the wound complications (WCs) frequency in minor technique gastrectomy (MTG) compared to open gastrectomy (OG) for gastric cancer (GC).
A comprehensive literature inspection till February 2023 was applied and 2078 interrelated investigations were reviewed. The 17 chosen investigations enclosed 12746 individuals with GC were in the chosen investigations' starting point, 3052 of them were utilizing robotic gastrectomy (RG), 6603 of them were utilizing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) and 3091 were utilizing OG. Odds ratio (OR) in addition to 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to compute the value of the WCs frequency in MTG compared to OG for GC by the dichotomous approaches and a fixed or random model.
No significant difference was found in surgical site wound infection (SSWI) between RG and OG (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.89-2.35, p=0.13), LG and OG (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47-1.18, p=0.21), and RG and LG (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.72-1.60, p=0.73) in individuals with GC.
No significant difference was found in SSWI between RG, OG, and LG in individuals with GC. However, care must be exercised when dealing with its values because of the low number of nominated in the meta-analysis and the low sample size of some of the nominated investigations for the meta-analysis.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of neuraxial anesthesia compared to general anesthesia on postoperative results in hip fracture surgery subjects.
A systematic literature search up to January 2021 was done and 20 studies included 298785 subjects with hip fracture surgery at the start of the study; 80783 of them were under neuraxial anesthesia, and 218002 of them were under general anesthesia. They were reporting relationships between the effects of neuraxial anesthesia compared to general anesthesia in subjects with hip fracture surgery. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) or the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the effects of neuraxial anesthesia compared to general anesthesia in subjects with hip fracture surgery using the dichotomous or continuous method with a random or fixed-effect model.
Neuraxial anesthesia in subjects with hip fracture surgery was significantly related to lower acute myocardial infarction (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99, p=0.04), hypotension (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70, p=0.002), and postoperative cognitive dysfunction postoperative 1day (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42, p<0.001) compared to general anesthesia.
However, no significant difference was found between neuraxial anesthesia and general anesthesia in subjects with hip fracture surgery in a postoperative cognitive dysfunction postoperative 7days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.37-1.09, p=0.10), pneumonia (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.29-1.62, p=0.39), length of hospital stay (MD, 0.75; 95% CI, -1.39-2.90, p=0.49), deep venous thrombosis (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.50-2.95, p=0.68), 30-day mortality (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.53-2.34, p=0.77), blood loss (MD, -57.47; 95% CI, -123.36-8.41, p=0.09), and delirium (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.32-2.49, p=0.96).
Neuraxial anesthesia in subjects with hip fracture surgery may decrease the risk of acute myocardial infarction, hypotension, and postoperative cognitive dysfunction postoperative 1 day compared to general anesthesia. Furthers studies are required to validate these findings.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of dual antithrombotic treatment (DATT) including direct oral anticoagulants (OAs) versus triple antithrombotic (TAT) with vitamin K antagonist on bleeding and ischemic results in atrial fibrillation (AF) after percutaneous coronary intervention.
A systematic literature search up to April 2021 was done and 5 studies included 8019 subjects with AF using antithrombotic treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention at the start of the study; 4325 of them were using DATT and 3694 were using TATs. They were reporting relationships between the effects of DATT including direct OAs versus TAT with vitamin K antagonist on bleeding and ischemic results in AF after percutaneous coronary intervention. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the effects of DATT including direct OAs versus TAT with vitamin K antagonist on bleeding and ischemic results in AF after percutaneous coronary intervention using the dichotomous method with a random or fixed-effect model.
Dual antithrombotics had significantly lower major bleeding (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.51-0.66, p<0.001), and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major and minor bleeding (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36-0.67, p<0.001) compared to TATs in subjects with AF using antithrombotics treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention.
However, antithrombotics had no significantly difference in all-cause mortality (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.88-1.33, p=0.46), cardiovascular mortality (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.83-1.38, p=0.63), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.46, p=0.01), stent thrombosis (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.94-2.12., p=0.09), and stroke (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.59-1.25, p=0.42) compared to TATs in subjects with AF using antithrombotics treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Dual antithrombotics may have a lower risk of major bleeding, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major and minor bleeding compared to TATs in subjects with AF using antithrombotic treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, antithrombotics had no significant difference in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and stroke compared to TATs in subjects with AF using antithrombotics treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention. Furthers studies are required to validate these findings.
Diloxanide furoate (DXF) and Metronidazole (MTZ) are commonly combined as a binary mixture for the treatment of a variety of diseases brought on by bacteria and parasites including amoebiasis and giardiasis. Different analytical methods were established for determination of both DXF and MTZ, However, only one chemometric spectrophotometric method was established for their stability indicating determination which involves problematical steps and specific software program. Herein, double divisor ratio spectra derivative (DDRSD) method is exploited for quantification of DXF and MTZ in presence of DXF-degradation products (FUR and DEG). The recommended DDRSD method is linear over the range of 2–25 and 1–25 µg/mL for DXF and MTZ, correspondingly. Additionally, the suggested method was effectively employed to their pharmaceutical formulations with good findings. Besides, the recommended DDRSD method was validated conforming to ICH guidelines. The introduced DDRSD method is simple, selective, and economic and could be implemented for quality control samples of the studied drugs.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the talk of everyone all over the world in 2020 since it has been considered as a public health emergency of international concern by WHO in 30th January, 2020. COVID-19 is a highly transmittable disease with different symptoms which can vary from mild to severe and life threatening. Scientists all over the world are working on finding a treatment or vaccine for this disease. All of these studies are currently not finished yet during writing this review. However, in this review a summary about the current status of these studies is given. This summary includes medicinal plants and natural products, antivirals like remdesivir, favipiravir, oseltamivir and nelfinavir as well as other miscellaneous drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin which showed promising results in treating COVID-19. In conclusion, the review recommends conducting further investigations worldwide and reporting them in peer-reviewed publications to aid in improving the drugs’ dosing regimens and clinical studies.